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insight by wfx

Welcome to Wordwide FX's new enterprise!

Insight by WFX is a synthesis of our passion for languages and the financial markets. Here you will find technical and fundamental analyses from our clients, media partners and contributors in different languages, as well as discussions on languages and translation. And of course we will keep you updated on what is happening inside Wordwide FX Financial Translations. Hope you enjoy it! Greetings from the Wordwide FX team!

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14/05/2019

Data perdagangan eksternal, keputusan kebijakan moneter Indonesia jadi sorotan di tengah rintangan global

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By Han Tai @HanTai, Market Analyst with FXTM. Translated by Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Indonesia akan merilis data perdagangan eksternal bulan April pada hari Rabu. Ekspor dan impor mencatat penurunan tahunan pada tiga bulan pertama 2019. Tren turun yang berlanjut dari data ini akan menyoroti rintangan global yang memengaruhi ekonomi Indonesia. Meninjau kenaikan tarif AS yang diberlakukan terhadap barang Tiongkok pada 10 Mei dan berpotensi terus ditingkatkan, hambatan dagang yang semakin besar akan berdampak negatif pada ekonomi Asia, di tengah perlambatan pertumbuhan global secara umum.

Di saat berbagai risiko eksternal begitu besar, keputusan Bank Indonesia pekan ini mungkin selaras dengan tren regional, mengingat bank sentral Filipina, Malaysia, dan Selandia Baru semuanya mengurangi suku bunga acuan pekan lalu. Kita belum mengetahui apakah BI akan menghapuskan sebagian dari kenaikan 175 bps yang diterapkan tahun lalu guna membantu Rupiah yang telah melemah 1.2 persen terhadap Dolar di sepanjang bulan Mei.

Pasar menunggu perkembangan dagang AS-Tiongkok berikutnya

Ketegangan dagang AS-Tiongkok diperkirakan akan menjadi tajuk utama pekan ini. Pasar Asia membuka hari Senin dengan menjauhi risiko. Kecuali Yen Jepang, sebagian besar mata uang Asia telah melemah terhadap Dolar AS. Shanghai Composite Index dibuka 1.5 persen lebih rendah sebelum pulih dari penurunan pada saat laporan ini dituliskan. Sebagian besar saham Asia juga melemah di Senin pagi. Sementara itu, futures S&P 500 turun satu persen, berpotensi menambah kesulitan bagi saham AS yang telah mengalami penurunan terbesar mingguan di 2019 pada pekan lalu.

Di akhir pekan, Presiden AS Donald Trump memberi sinyal yang bervariasi mengenai pendekatannya terhadap negosiasi dagang dengan Tiongkok. Di satu sisi, ia membuat cuitan bahwa negosiasi akan dilanjutkan secara "bersahabat", dan bahwa "tidak perlu tergesa-gesa sama sekali". Sebaliknya, Trump juga mengatakan bahwa ia senang "memungut tarif yang besar" dan menyuruh Tiongkok untuk "bertindak sekarang". Cuitan ini dibuat di tengah laporan bahwa negosiator dagang AS memberi waktu satu bulan kepada pihak Tiongkok untuk mencapai kesepakatan atau mengancam akan memberlakukan tarif AS terhadap semua impor Tiongkok.

Skenario dasar pasar tidak kokoh?

Mengingat Trump begitu sulit diprediksi, upaya untuk memprediksi hasil akhir negosiasi dagang AS-Tiongkok berisiko melibatkan skenario dasar yang tidak kokoh sama sekali. Pada saat laporan ini dituliskan, pasar masih menunggu detail mengenai "langkah tanggapan" Tiongkok" terhadap tarif AS yang lebih tinggi yang diberlakukan pada $200 miliar barang Tiongkok pada 10 Mei. Perlu diingat bahwa Presiden Trump juga menyampaikan kemungkinan tarif 25 persen terhadap $325 miliar lagi barang Tiongkok yang saat ini belum dikenakan tarif. Walaupun tampaknya sebagian peserta pasar masih menunggu kesepakatan dagang resmi antara AS-Tiongkok, aksi jual aset berisiko pekan lalu dapat berarti pasar bersiap menghadapi volatilitas lebih tinggi karena keadaan dagang di masa mendatang. 

Potensi deviasi arah ekonomi AS-Tiongkok dapat tingkatkan ketidakpastian pasar

Selain komentar dari kedua pemerintah mengenai perdagangan, investor juga akan memantau indikator ekonomi penting dari AS dan Tiongkok yang akan diumumkan pekan ini. Data produksi industri dan penjualan ritel dari AS dan Tiongkok akan dirilis hari Rabu, di saat ketegangan antara kedua ekonomi terbesar dunia ini semakin panas. Momentum pertumbuhan ekonomi AS diprediksi tetap stabil, sedangkan Tiongkok telah menampilkan sinyal semakin stabil dalam beberapa bulan terakhir. Perbedaan signifikan dari arah pertumbuhan tersebut dapat menambah ketidakpastian di pasar.

Safe haven menguat karena Trump menyuruh Tiongkok untuk "bertindak sekarang"

Trump memberi tahu Tiongkok untuk "bertindak sekarang", tapi investor tidak perlu menunggu perintah dari Presiden AS untuk menghindari risiko. Emas kini berada di pertengahan $1280 dan Yen Jepang menguat, USDJPY semakin menurun di bawah 110. Sementara itu, Indeks Dolar (DXY) stabil di kisaran 97.3 saat ini, setelah mengalami penurunan selama dua pekan berturut-turut.

Kurangnya kemajuan dalam kebuntuan negosiasi dagang AS-Tiongkok dapat membentuk lingkungan yang mendukung aset safe haven, dan memburuknya ketegangan dapat mengangkat nilai emas dan JPY secara signifikan.
 

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30/04/2019

Wordwide FX Gives Back to Orangutans

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By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Giving back a bit of good luck

I really like the concept of "giving back", unique to the English-speaking world. Because we believe that to us, privileged people living in privileged corners of the planet, it is a must to give back part of our good luck to deserving causes. We give back because we owe it to them.

Human beings are complex animals able to do extraordinary things, but also despicable ones. And human greed, materialism, and sheer stupidity can be immeasurable. To many of us, it is very difficult to come to terms with the fact that the human species is able to bring to the brim of extinction other beings sharing this planet with us out of greed.  We are guilty of crimes against the planet, against wildlife, and against our own fellow humans. And if any of us can spare a few bucks at the end of the month, it is just as fair that we give them back to those we hurt every day, even if only indirectly. 

Why Orangutans

"Orangutans are the most intelligent beings on the planet after human beings", we learn on The Orangutan Project, "and they adapt to the environment by passing on culture thorugh each generation. A self-aware being, as intelligent as a six year old child, their drive to extinction is an individual story of horror as they are macheted and burnt alive as an agricultural pest." 

Orangutans are also one of the most vulnerable creatures in the planet. They are the slowest reproducing species in the world, which makes them prone to extinction, and tragically they live in an area of the planet that is being quickly destroyed by a few multinational companies turning the rainforest to unsustainable forms of agriculture such as palm oil or pulp paper. 

The Orangutan Project and other associations devoting their lives and efforts to protecting orangutans (or chimpanzees, or gorilas, or whales...) sure deserve these few bucks we can spare at the end of the month. They deserve much more. Please help them, too, if you can.

 

 

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03/04/2019

Pasar global buka Q2 dengan positif, Rupiah stabil

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By Hussein Sayed, Chief Market Strategist with FXTM. Translated by Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Mata uang pasar berkembang bervariasi pada hari Selasa. Investor meninjau kembali masalah pertumbuhan global dan risiko geopolitik. Peningkatan optimisme mengenai ekonomi AS dan data ekonomi positif dari Tiongkok mengurangi kekhawatiran mengenai perlambatan berbagai ekonomi terbesar dunia. Mood pasar yang membaik meningkatkan selera risiko dan mendukung mata uang pasar berkembang. Rupiah stabil terhadap Dolar. USDIDR bergerak di kisaran 14238 pada saat laporan ini dituliskan. Kalender ekonomi Indonesia tidak memiliki rilis data ekonomi penting di sepanjang pekan ini, sehingga Rupiah kemungkinan tetap dipengaruhi oleh faktor eksternal menjelang laporan lapangan kerja AS di hari Jumat.
Investor mendapat alasan baru untuk terus membeli aset berisiko karena performa triwulan pertama menggembirakan. Prospek manufaktur yang lebih cerah di dunia ekonomi terbesar dunia, AS dan Tiongkok, membantu meredam kekhawatiran mengenai perlambatan laju pertumbuhan ekonomi global. Aktivitas produksi Tiongkok secara mengejutkan meningkat di bulan Maret, dengan laju paling cepat dalam delapan bulan terakhir. PMI Manufaktur Markit/Caixin mengalami ekspansi setelah kontraksi selama tiga bulan berturut-turut. Upaya pemerintah untuk melonggarkan kebijakan moneter dan fiskal sepertinya mulai menunjukkan hasil. Apabila negosiasi dagang Tiongkok-AS mengalami kemajuan positif, investor akan melihat data ekonomi mendatang semakin membaik. 
Sektor manufaktur AS juga bangkit luar biasa di bulan Maret dari level terendah selama lebih dari dua tahun. Data pemesanan baru, penyerapan tenaga kerja, dan produksi di sektor ini memberi kejutan positif. Data ini membantu mengangkat saham AS ke level tertinggi tahun ini. Obligasi Treasury AS mencatat penjualan paling tinggi dalam tiga bulan, dan imbal hasil Obligasi 10-Tahun meningkat sebesar 8 basis poin. Kenaikan imbal hasil jangka panjang mengantarkan pada kurva imbal hasil yang semakin tajam setelah mengalami inversi pekan lalu.  
Tapi saat ini masih terlalu dini untuk dapat menyimpulkan bahwa ekonomi AS telah berbalik arah. Penjualan ritel merosot 0.2% bulan lalu karena konsumen rumah tangga mengurangi belanja perabot, elektronik, bahan bangunan, dan sandang. Mengingat belanja konsumen berkontribusi lebih dari dua pertiga aktivitas ekonomi AS, kita harus melihat peningkatan belanja untuk dapat mengatakan bahwa momentum mulai naik. Terlalu mengandalkan satu bagian informasi saja dapat menyesatkan, karena itu investor harus terus waspada, terutama mengingat posisi dovish yang diambil Fed dan hasil positif negosiasi dagang AS-Tiongkok sudah terefleksikan pada harga di pasar saham. 
Di pasar mata uang, Pound Inggris mencatat pergerakan terbesar pada hari Senin. Setelah menguat terhadap Dolar ke 1.3149, Pound anjlok lebih dari 1% dan kembali menyentuh 1.30 karena empat opsi Brexit alternatif semuanya ditolak oleh Parlemen. Kekalahan kemarin meningkatkan kemungkinan Brexit tanpa kesepakatan, karena para politikus Inggris hanya memiliki 10 hari lagi untuk mengambil keputusan. Theresa May mungkin akan mencoba lagi untuk meraih dukungan perjanjian keluar, tapi jika May kembali gagal untuk keempat kalinya, harus ada rencana alternatif untuk menghindari Brexit tanpa kesepakatan. Untuk saat ini, sepertinya memperpanjang tenggat Brexit adalah skenario yang paling mungkin terjadi. Tapi jika voting indikatif memberi dukungan untuk serikat pabean atau referendum kedua, Pound mungkin akan mengalami reli besar-besaran.  
 

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28/02/2019

Importance Of Indonesian Language And Indonesia Around The Globe

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By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Via tridindia.com

By Achia Sharma

There is a huge Importance of Indonesian Language and Indonesia, considering the fact that Indonesia is one of the fastest and steadily growing economies in the world today. With a population of more than 43 million natives and a lot of high profile tourist destinations, the. In this article, we will explore the why and how’s of navigating this bustling and highly potential market.

Brief Intro Of The Indonesian Language

Bahasa or Bahasa Indonesia is the official language of the South Asian country of Indonesia. Home to 43 million native speakers, it is undoubtedly one of the most popular languages in the country. The language has been spoken in the land for centuries and therefore is a part of the standardized Register of Malay.

Other than the native language of Bahasa, the 43 million residents of Indonesia are fluent in 700 other local dialects. Prominent examples of these local languages include Sundanese, Javanese and also Balinese. However, despite the popularity of these 700 other languages, the country provides most of its formal education and other official communication to the public in Indonesian, as it is undoubtedly understood by all and even to a large number of immigrants in the country, along with a substantial amount of foreigners visiting the country every year.

The name Indonesian for the language which is originally known as Bahasa Indonesian is commonly found in popular languages spoken in the world and also English.

Popular English words with Indonesian origin

During the rule of the Great Britain in the British colonies of Malay and the monarchy’s short stay in Java, the English language borrowed a substantial number of words from the Indonesian language. These words, borrowed from the Malay language family is also known as kata serapan in the local language. But the distinctive factor is not all words were borrowed from Bahasa alone, some were borrowed from local dialects such as Javanese and Sundanese as well.

The main purpose of loaning words from the Indonesian language is to describe things which are uniquely Indonesian like flora and fauna of the country, known as Cockatoo and Komodo. Both these English words have Indonesian roots. Another popular reason to loan words from Indonesian is to describe the local art forms such as wayang, kris and batik among others.

The most recent stint of borrowing English words from Indonesian is to describe volcanic occurrences and to describe food processing materials such as tempeh and agar. Mentioned below are some of the most popular English words with an Indonesian, Javanese or Sundanese origin. Language learning is fun, and this list will simply give you an idea of that. Also, the list is not exhaustive and has been categorized into subsections for a better understanding of the reader.

1. Animals: Dugong from the Indonesian word Duyung, Orangutan, Siamang, Tokay or gecko from the Javanese word Tolek, Tapir, Bantam named after the town of Banten.

2. Nature: Bamboo from the Indonesian word Bambu, Meranti which is a kind of tropical tree inhabitant to the country, Pandanus from Pandan, Sago from the Indonesian word Sagu, Cajuput from the Indonesian word Kayu Putih.

3. Fruits: Salak from the Indonesian word Zalacca, Papaya from Pepaya, Cempedak and Mangosteen from the Indonesian word Manggis.

4. Food Items: Agar which is used in food processing and manufacture, Ketchup from the Indonesian word kecap which means soy sauce and not tomato sauce, Satay from the Javanese word of Sate.

5. Textiles and Clothes: Batik a type of textile and weaving technique from the Javanese word Batik, Ikat, Songket, Sarong from the Indonesian word Sarung and Canting from the Javanese word Canting.

6. Musical Instruments: Gong which is a very popular musical instrument in the country as well as Gamelan and Angklung.

7. Nautical Archaeology: Popular words used in the industry like Junk which originated from the Indonesian word Jong, Proa from the Javanese word Prahu as well as Indonesian word Perahu.

8. Hoplology: Sjamnok which is a kind of weapon made from wood and used to punish slaves originated from the Indonesian word Cambuk.

9. Anthroponomastics: Popular English names like Mata Hari has its roots in the Indonesian word Mata Hari meaning Sun.

10. Psychology: Psychological terms used to describe the human state and mind like Latah and Amok.

Indonesia Business Economy

Indonesia is one of the richest countries in the world when it comes to the supply of natural resources like natural gas, crude oil, gold and copper. This is why more and more businesses are investing in Indonesian translation, in order to expand their business at the said location. Over the years Indonesia has popularized its name for being a manufacturing centre and the country’s Gross Domestic Product or GDP, and Price Per Capita or PPC is estimated at 3.481 trillion United States Dollar and $13,120 respectively.

 

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31/01/2019

The Widely-Spoken Languages We Still Cannot Translate Online

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By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Via wired.com

IN THE INTERNET age, when we face a language barrier, there are a host of internet resources to solve it: things like translation apps, dictionary websites, versions of Wikipediain other languages, and the simple "click to translate" option. But there are about 7000 languages spoken in the world today. The top 10 or so are spoken by hundred of millions of speakers; the bottom third have 1000 speakers or fewer.

But in the murky middle ground are a couple hundred languages that are spoken by speakers in millions. These midsize languages are still fairly widely spoken, but they have vastly inconsistent levels of support online. There’s Swedish, which has 9.6 million speakers, the third-largest Wikipedia with over 3 million articles, and support in Google Translate, Bing Translate, Facebook, Siri, YouTube captions, and so on. But there’s also Odia, the official language of the Odisha state in India, with 38 million speakers, which has no presence in Google Translate. And Oromo, a language spoken by some 34 million people, mostly in Ethiopia, which has just 772 articles in its Wikipedia.

Why do Greek, Czech, Hungarian, and Swedish, with their 8 to 13 million speakers, have Google Translate support and robust Wikipedia presences, while languages the same size or larger, like Bhojpuri (51 million), Fula (24 million), Sylheti (11 million), Quechua (9 million), and Kirundi (9 million) languish in technological obscurity?

Part of the reason is that Greek, Czech, Hungarian, and Swedish are among the 24 official languages of the European Union, which means that a small hoard of human translators translate many official European Parliament documents every year. Human-translated documents make a great base for what linguists call a parallel corpus — a large mass of text that's equivalent, sentence-by-sentence, in multiple languages. Machine translation engines use parallel corpora to figure out regular correspondences between languages: if "regering" or "κυβέρνηση" or "kormány" or "vláda" all frequently appear in parallel to "government," then the machine concludes these words are equivalent.

In order to be reasonably effective, machine translation requires an enormous parallel corpus for each language. Ideally, this corpus contains documents from a variety of genres: not just parliamentary proceedings but news reports, novels, film scripts, and so on. The machine can't translate informal social media posts very well if it's been trained only on formal legal documents. Translation tools are already scraping the bottom of the parallel corpus barrel: In many languages, the largest parallel translated text is the Bible, which leads to peculiar circumstances where Google translates nonsense syllables into prophecies of doom.

In addition to EU documents, Swedish, Greek, Hungarian, and Czech have a wealth of language resources, created one human at a time over centuries. They're the languages of entire nation-states, with national TV and radio recordings that can be used as the foundation for text-to-speech models. Their speakers have the kind of disposable income that makes media companies translate popular novels and subtitle foreign movies and TV shows. They're found in countries that tech companies imagine their customers might be living in or might at least visit on holiday, meaning it's worth localizing interfaces and adding them as translation options. They have regularized spelling systems and dictionaries that can be rolled into spellcheckers and predictive text models. They have highly literate speakers with internet access who can contribute to projects like Wikipedia. (Speakers who can even, in the case of Swedish, create a bot to automatically make basic Wikipedia articles for rivers, mountains, and other natural features.)

Language resources don't just appear. People have to decide to create them, and those people need to be fed and watered and educated and housed and supported, whether that's by governments or by companies or by the kind of personal wealth that lets individuals take on time-consuming intellectual hobbies. Creating parallel corpora and other language resources takes years, if it happens at all, and costtens of millions of dollars per language.

Meanwhile, we know that catastrophes periodically happen around the world: earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, cyclones, diseases, famines, fires. Some of them will happen in areas where people speak a large, well-resourced language, and organizations will rush to their aid. But the odds are goodthat some of the world's future crises will happen in areas where people speak one of these medium-size but low-resource languages. In those cases, aid organizations and governments will face an urgent language barrier.

The problem is, we don't know which language will desperately need the world's attention next. When an earthquake hit Haiti in 2010, international organizations suddenly required Haitian Creole resources. Ebola outbreaks in West Africa affected speakers of languages like Swahili, Nande, Mbuba, Krio, Mende and Themne. Asylum seekers from Central America often speak languages like Zapotec, Q’anjob’al, K'iche' and Mam. These speakers aren't the ideal customers of big tech companies. They don't have leisure time to edit Wikipedia. They may not even be literate in their mother tongue, communicating by voice memoinstead of by text message. But when a crisis hits, internet communication tools will be crucial.

Researchers at Darpa, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, decided to tackle the problem by rethinking the way we translate languages. Instead of creating language-specific tools, Darpa is attempting to build language-agnostic tools that, once created, could spring into action in times of crisis and be tuned to any language with minor tweaking — even if they have just monolingual text scraped from social media rather than carefully translated parallel corpora.

They also changed their goals. It's too hard to jump right to full-blown machine translators that produce idiomatic prose, according to Dr. Boyan Onyshkevych, program manager at Darpa's Information Innovation Office. Instead, they carve out more manageable tasks, such as linking all the proper nouns in a passage with their equivalents in a more widely-spoken language. Automatically identifying entities in this way can help provide clues about the overall situation — say, which rivers are flooding, which villages are affected by an outbreak, or which people are missing.

Darpa funds researchers year-round at a couple dozen universities and companies; then, twice a year, they test them, in a "linguistic crisis simulation" event, where teams of researchers translate imaginary catastrophe reports in a surprise mystery language. For the first round, the teams have 24 hours to figure out as much useful information as possible from social media, blogs, and news reports, with the help of a few resources like a basic dictionary and an hour of time with a native speaker of the language. Then Darpa adds in more social media data and more time with a speaker, and the teams go at it again. Later, the results and data sets from such simulations are often published online so they can eventually be rolled into tools like Siri and Google Translate.

Methods like these use the resources of the internet age to solve the problems of the internet age. Smaller languages may not have extensive books or parliamentary records to train a language processor; they may not have very many professional translators. But they do have thousands or millions of speakers hanging out on social media and posting, like all of us do, about the weather and what they had for lunch. These posters are potentially sowing the seeds of their own survival, should catastrophe strike — their tweets and blog posts could get scooped up to teach the rest of the world how to help.

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08/01/2019

Minyak Mentah WTI: Faktor fundamental yang bertolak belakang

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By Lukman Otunuga @Lukman_FXTM, Research Analyst with FXTM. Translated by Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Kekhawatiran yang belum berakhir mengenai pasokan berlebihan dan isyarat penurunan permintaan mengekspos pasar minyak pada kerugian besar di kuartal terakhir tahun 2018. Pandangan pesimis bahwa ekonomi global akan melambat di tahun 2019 membuat prospek minyak tetap negatif memasuki tahun baru ini. 

Risiko geopolitik yang belum berakhir dalam bentuk ketegangan dagang antara AS-China menjadi masalah signifikan terhadap prospek permintaan minyak, dan banyak negara yang melaporkan data ekonomi yang lebih lemah. Ini menyiratkan bahwa bears tetap memegang kendali terhadap fluktuasi minyak di jangka pendek. Kekhawatiran mengenai perlambatan ekonomi global lebih dominan dibanding topik OPEC, karena perhatian pasar akan terfokus pada masalah perlambatan global yang meningkatkan ketidakpastian dan mendorong aksi jual aset berisiko seperti minyak.

Memasuki tahun 2019, harga minyak akan terombang-ambing oleh sejumlah faktor fundamental yang saling berlawanan. Keadaan pasar yang tidak pasti juga akan mewarnai prospek jangka menengah dan panjang. Pemangkasan produksi OPEC dan Rusia dapat mengurangi pasokan yang berlebih, namun juga akan mendorong produksi minyak AS yang lebih tinggi sehingga mengekspos pasar minyak pada masalah oversuplai yang lebih besar lagi. Keadaan dagang AS-China yang semakin tegang, keadaan ekonomi global, dan terutama permintaan minyak China akan sangat memengaruhi permintaan. Pertanda bahwa ekonomi China semakin melambat di tengah ketegangan dagang akan menjadi berita yang sangat buruk bagi pasar energi, terutama mengingat bahwa Asia adalah konsumen besar di pasar minyak.

Penggerak lain yang memengaruhi harga minyak di Q1 antara lain kinerja Dolar dan Tweet dari Presiden AS Donald Trump. Dolar yang melemah di tengah spekulasi bahwa Fed akan menghentikan sementara kenaikan suku bunga akan berdampak positif bagi harga minyak karena denominasi komoditas ini adalah Dolar. Presiden Trump sudah merayakan harga minyak yang rendah melalui Twitter dan memprediksi penurunan lebih lanjut tahun ini. Karena itu, investor perlu bersiap menghadapi kuartal trading yang tetap volatil.

Dari sudut pandang teknis, minyak mentah WTI jelas bearish di rentang mingguan dan bulanan. Penutupan tahunan tegas di bawah $50 pada 2018 menandakan bahwa bears tetap memegang kendali dan level perhatian penting berikutnya adalah $45, $43, dan $36. Trader mingguan akan mencermati bagaimana harga bereaksi terhadap level $43 dan menggunakan rentang ini untuk menilai apakah pantulan teknikal mungkin terjadi.

Pada rentang harian, WTI tetap bearish. Level support sebelumnya yaitu sekitar $50 dapat membuka jalan menuju $43. Sebaliknya, breakout di atas $50 dapat membuka jalan menuju $55.30.

Dinamika permintaan-penawaran jelas tidak terlihat menguntungkan bagi pasar minyak, dan bears menguasai WTI.

 

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