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insight by wfx

Welcome to Wordwide FX's new enterprise!

Insight by WFX is a synthesis of our passion for languages and the financial markets. Here you will find technical and fundamental analyses from our clients, media partners and contributors in different languages, as well as discussions on languages and translation. And of course we will keep you updated on what is happening inside Wordwide FX Financial Translations. Hope you enjoy it! Greetings from the Wordwide FX team!

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06/03/2019

Hey, America: Y’all need to start saying y’all, linguist says

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By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Via ai.com

By Greg Garrison

Across America, it’s becoming increasingly common to hear the use of the Southern contraction “Y’all,” a linguistic fusion of the words “you” and “all.”

It may be partly because of the spread of Southern influence nationwide, but it also fills an important need in the English language, said Southern linguist Thomas Nunnally.

“It’s being adopted all over the country, because it needs to be,” said Nunnally, a retired professor of linguistics at Auburn University who spoke at Samford University on Thursday. Nunnally is editor and co-author of “Speaking of Alabama: The History, Diversity, Function and Change of Language,” published by the University of Alabama Press. 

Linguists have noted that “y’all” addresses a gap in the English language left behind by the disappearance of the pronoun “ye,” the second person plural form of the pronoun “thou,” both of which have become stilted, archaic and fallen out of use.

The English language now generally uses the pronoun “you” to function as both singular and plural.

Regional adaptations include “youse” or “Youse guys” in the Northeast; “yunz” or “yinz” in Pittsburgh; the Midwestern “You’nes” a contraction of “you-ones,” or the upper Southern “You all.”

The phrase “you guys” fills the function, but can be seen as uncomfortable because of the masculine word guys.

Nunnally recalls he and his wife being addressed as “you guys,” and he took exception.

“To call my wife a guy, I was aghast,” he said.

Other variations seem to Southern ears to be inadequate.

But the spread of “y’all” shows its appeal and functionality.

“Y’all does it nicely and concisely,” Nunnally said.

“Y’all” is also part of Africa-American Vernacular English, which derives from black language in the South, so musical artists in rap, hip-hop and the larger entertainment culture can play a role in helping its spread.

“Y’all” can also be used in addressing one person, to politely include others, such as in the phrase, “How y’all doing?”

 

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28/02/2019

Importance Of Indonesian Language And Indonesia Around The Globe

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By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Via tridindia.com

By Achia Sharma

There is a huge Importance of Indonesian Language and Indonesia, considering the fact that Indonesia is one of the fastest and steadily growing economies in the world today. With a population of more than 43 million natives and a lot of high profile tourist destinations, the. In this article, we will explore the why and how’s of navigating this bustling and highly potential market.

Brief Intro Of The Indonesian Language

Bahasa or Bahasa Indonesia is the official language of the South Asian country of Indonesia. Home to 43 million native speakers, it is undoubtedly one of the most popular languages in the country. The language has been spoken in the land for centuries and therefore is a part of the standardized Register of Malay.

Other than the native language of Bahasa, the 43 million residents of Indonesia are fluent in 700 other local dialects. Prominent examples of these local languages include Sundanese, Javanese and also Balinese. However, despite the popularity of these 700 other languages, the country provides most of its formal education and other official communication to the public in Indonesian, as it is undoubtedly understood by all and even to a large number of immigrants in the country, along with a substantial amount of foreigners visiting the country every year.

The name Indonesian for the language which is originally known as Bahasa Indonesian is commonly found in popular languages spoken in the world and also English.

Popular English words with Indonesian origin

During the rule of the Great Britain in the British colonies of Malay and the monarchy’s short stay in Java, the English language borrowed a substantial number of words from the Indonesian language. These words, borrowed from the Malay language family is also known as kata serapan in the local language. But the distinctive factor is not all words were borrowed from Bahasa alone, some were borrowed from local dialects such as Javanese and Sundanese as well.

The main purpose of loaning words from the Indonesian language is to describe things which are uniquely Indonesian like flora and fauna of the country, known as Cockatoo and Komodo. Both these English words have Indonesian roots. Another popular reason to loan words from Indonesian is to describe the local art forms such as wayang, kris and batik among others.

The most recent stint of borrowing English words from Indonesian is to describe volcanic occurrences and to describe food processing materials such as tempeh and agar. Mentioned below are some of the most popular English words with an Indonesian, Javanese or Sundanese origin. Language learning is fun, and this list will simply give you an idea of that. Also, the list is not exhaustive and has been categorized into subsections for a better understanding of the reader.

1. Animals: Dugong from the Indonesian word Duyung, Orangutan, Siamang, Tokay or gecko from the Javanese word Tolek, Tapir, Bantam named after the town of Banten.

2. Nature: Bamboo from the Indonesian word Bambu, Meranti which is a kind of tropical tree inhabitant to the country, Pandanus from Pandan, Sago from the Indonesian word Sagu, Cajuput from the Indonesian word Kayu Putih.

3. Fruits: Salak from the Indonesian word Zalacca, Papaya from Pepaya, Cempedak and Mangosteen from the Indonesian word Manggis.

4. Food Items: Agar which is used in food processing and manufacture, Ketchup from the Indonesian word kecap which means soy sauce and not tomato sauce, Satay from the Javanese word of Sate.

5. Textiles and Clothes: Batik a type of textile and weaving technique from the Javanese word Batik, Ikat, Songket, Sarong from the Indonesian word Sarung and Canting from the Javanese word Canting.

6. Musical Instruments: Gong which is a very popular musical instrument in the country as well as Gamelan and Angklung.

7. Nautical Archaeology: Popular words used in the industry like Junk which originated from the Indonesian word Jong, Proa from the Javanese word Prahu as well as Indonesian word Perahu.

8. Hoplology: Sjamnok which is a kind of weapon made from wood and used to punish slaves originated from the Indonesian word Cambuk.

9. Anthroponomastics: Popular English names like Mata Hari has its roots in the Indonesian word Mata Hari meaning Sun.

10. Psychology: Psychological terms used to describe the human state and mind like Latah and Amok.

Indonesia Business Economy

Indonesia is one of the richest countries in the world when it comes to the supply of natural resources like natural gas, crude oil, gold and copper. This is why more and more businesses are investing in Indonesian translation, in order to expand their business at the said location. Over the years Indonesia has popularized its name for being a manufacturing centre and the country’s Gross Domestic Product or GDP, and Price Per Capita or PPC is estimated at 3.481 trillion United States Dollar and $13,120 respectively.

 

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20/12/2018

Pooping Logs Bring Christmas Cheer in Catalonia

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By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Via National Geographic 

Amongst the endless variations of Christmas across cultures, Catalans stand out with a special log-beating ceremony.

If you’re a kid in Catalonia, you don’t get your Christmas treats from a fireplace-hung stocking. Instead, you have to take sticks and beat them out of a blanket-covered wooden log. The Tió de Nadal (or Caga Tió, ‘poop log’), a specially decorated log with a smiley face and little stick legs, is kept in the house from 8 December, when Catalans celebrate the Feast of the Immaculate Conception.

Catalans can get these logs at Christmas markets and even supermarkets. Once tió has taken up residence in the house, children look after it by keeping it warm under a blanket and leaving it food and water every night—the more generous they are, the more the log can be expected to give back.

After all that nurturing, on Christmas Day the log is “ready” to literally poop out its goodies, and is ordered to do so as the children sing songs and take turns to whack it with sticks. Of course, at this point the parents have secretly filled the log with treats such as candy, nuts, and nougat, while the children have been sent out of the room to pray that tió will deliver good presents.

Thus, once all the songs are sung and the log has been given a good beating, the children lift the blanket to find what the log has pooped out, and everyone shares the treats. Traditionally the log was burnt in the fireplace, and ashes scattered on the fields to ensure a good harvest the following year. However, these days the family just stores the log in a cupboard until next year's festivities.

In case you are curious, here are the lyrics to one of the traditional Catalan pooping log songs:

Caga tió,
Caga torró,
Avellanes i mató,
Si no cagues bé
Et daré un cop de bastó.
Caga tió!

English translation:

Shit, log,
Shit nougats (turrón),
Hazelnuts and mató cheese,
If you don't shit well,
I'll hit you with a stick,
Shit, log!

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20/12/2018

Sweden's Burning Christmas Goat

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By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Via National Geographic

In Scandinavia, a common Christmas symbol of pagan origin is the Yule goat, an ornament in the shape of a goat with horns, made out of straw and tied with plenty of red ribbon.

The Swedish town of Gävle has become world-famous for its gigantic version of the straw goat, placed every year in the town’s central Castle Square.

This tradition was started in 1966, and the 13-metre-high goat even made it into the Guinness Book of Records in 1985 (for world’s biggest straw goat, of course). The Gävle goat has a social media following, but its international fame also stems from a rather unfortunate reason—most years it ends up being destroyed by arsonists and vandals.

Attempts to protect the goat have involved fencing, dousing it in fire retardant, and even volunteer guardians working in shifts, all with mixed results.

This year was the goat’s 50th anniversary, but that did not help it survive. The magnificent straw creature—which takes some 1000 hours to build—went up in flames just hours after its annual inauguration on the first Sunday of Advent.

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03/10/2018

24 Old English Words You Should Start Using Again

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By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Via Lifehack

Language changes over time; words and phrases come and go. In many cases, there is a good reason for words leaving our vocabulary.

I am certainly grateful that modern sewer systems mean there is no longer a need for the term Gardyloo – a warning call before chamber pots were poured out of windows onto the streets below.

Other old English words, however, still have perfectly valid meanings in our modern world and really need to be brought back, if only for the pleasure of saying them.

Here are 24 old English words and slang terms that are fun to say, still useful, and should never have left us in the first place:

1. Bedward

Exactly as it sounds, bedward means heading for bed. Who doesn’t like heading bedward after a hard day?

2. Billingsgate

This one is a sneaky word; it sounds so very proper and yet it refers to abusive language and curse words.

3. Brabble

Do you ever brabble? To brabble is to argue loudly about matters of no importance.

4. Crapulous

A most appropriate sounding word for the condition of feeling ill as a result of too much eating/drinking.

5. Elflock

Such a sweet word to describe hair that is tangled, as if it has been matted by elves.

6. Erstwhile

This very British sounding word refers to things that are not current, that belong to a former time, rather like the word itself.

7. Expergefactor

Something that wakes you up is an expergefactor. For most of us it’s our alarm clocks, but it could be anything from a chirping bird to a noisy neighbor.

8. Fudgel

Fudgel is the act of giving the impression you are working, when really you are doing nothing.

9. Groke

This means to stare intently at someone who is eating, in the hope that they will give you some. Watch any dog for a demonstration.

10. Grubble

Grubble might sound like the name of a character from a fantasy novel but it does in fact mean to feel or grope around for something that you can’t see.

11. Hugger-mugger

What a fun way to describe secretive, or covert behavior.

12. Hum durgeon

An imaginary illness. Sounds more like an imaginary word. Have you ever suffered from hum durgeon?

13. Jargogle

This is a perfect word that should never have left our vocabulary, it means to confuse or jumble.

14. Lanspresado

It sounds like the name of a sparkling wine, but no, it means a person who arrives somewhere, having conveniently forgotten their wallet, or having some other complicated story to explain why they don’t have money with them.

15. Mumpsimus

Mumpsimums is an incorrect view on something that a person refuses to let go of.

16. Quagswag

To shake something backwards and forwards is to quagswag, who knew?

17. Rawgabbit

We all know a few rawgabbits. A rawgabbit is a person who likes to gossip confidentially about matters that they know nothing about.

18. Snollygoster

I think we can all agree this is a fantastic sounding word. It means a person who has intelligence but no principles; a dangerous combination. Watch out for the snollygosters, they live amongst us.

19. Snottor

This old english term has the unlikely meaning of “wise.” Really?

20. Trumpery

Things that look good but are basically worthless. I said THINGS, not people.

21. Uhtceare

This means lying awake worrying before dawn. We all do this, we just didn’t know there was a word for it. Say it now, like this: oot-key-are-a.

22. Ultracrepidarian

Similar to the rawgabbit, this person takes every opportunity to share their opinion about things they know nothing about. Social media is the perfect outlet for these people.

23. Zwodder

Being in a drowsy, fuzzy state, after a big night out perhaps?

And finally, I broke the alphabetical listing to save my favorite till last…

24. Cockalorum

A small man with a big opinion of himself.

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02/10/2018

The long war over the Ukrainian language

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By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Via The Boston Globe

Don’t call it Little Russian. Why the Ukraine’s lingua franca is a hot point.

By Britt Peterson.

AS AMERICANS have been learning in recent weeks, Russia sometimes has its own way of describing events—like when Vladimir Putin claimed on March 4, despite the presence of Russian troops on the ground, that he hadn’t invaded the Crimean region of east Ukraine. Then there’s the narrative about what is spoken in that invaded country: namely, the Ukrainian language.

A couple of obscure Russian imperial statements on Ukrainian have recently become popular on Russian nationalist blogs and Reddit pages. One comes from the 1863 Valuev Circular, a decree suspending the publication of many religious and educational texts in Ukrainian, or as the Russians called it, Little Russian: “a separate Little Russian language has never existed, does not exist and cannot exist.” The other is a quote attributed to Czar Nicholas II: “There is no Ukrainian language, just illiterate peasants speaking Little Russian.”

The claim that Ukrainian isn’t a language has been one of the drumbeats of the Russian-Ukrainian relationship for centuries. It’s true that the distinction between a language and a dialect is notoriously slippery, often more about politics than mutual intelligibility or shared vocabulary. As Yiddish linguist Max Weinreich famously quoted, “A language is a dialect with an army and a navy.” But according to linguists outside of Russia, Ukrainian and Russian are two distinct, if closely related, languages. The attacks on the status of Ukrainian, in that light, offer a window onto a side of the conflict that can be hard for outsiders to grasp: the persistent ways that Russia has taken advantage of a long and complicated cultural relationship to enforce its claim to power.

In the West, it’s generally agreed that Ukrainian and Russian are separate languages, with 38 percent of their lexicon differing. (That’s slightly more than Spanish and Italian, which differ by 33 percent.) It’s also generally agreed that the three Eastern Slavic languages—Russian, Ukrainian, and Belarusian—split off from Old East Slavic about a thousand years ago.

Some Russian linguists, however, tell the story differently: They claim that the East Slavic ancestor was in fact a form of Russian, making Russian not a sibling, but rather the mother tongue from which the other languages descended. The word for Old East Slavic in Russian is drevnerusskiy yazyk, which means “Old Russian,” whereas Ukrainians call it the more neutral davn’orus’ka mova, or language of Rus, the medieval Russian state. Russian attempts to ban Ukrainian in its imperial territories didn’t end with the Valuev Circular—in 1876, Czar Alexander II issued the Ems Ukaz, banning the public use of Ukrainian altogether.

Ukrainian scholars will remind you, meanwhile, that 17th-century Russia, having mostly missed out on the Renaissance, was still catching up to modernity. It relied on Poland and Ukraine, with their connections to Europe and European languages, to broaden its vocabulary: “The Russian language was borrowing many constructions and forms...[from] the Ukrainians, because at that time [Russia] was underdeveloped compared with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Ukraine,” said Andriy Danylenko, a Ukrainian linguist at Pace University. Ukrainian also saw a cultural revival in the 19th century, a Romantic outpouring of literature, journalism, and folk traditions that built the fundament of a new nationalist identity. In this light, the imperial Russian decrees against Ukrainian suggest the language was seen less as a poor stepchild than as a rival. 

The ban on Ukrainian was lifted after the first Russian Revolution in 1905, and after the second Revolution, Lenin and Stalin at first oversaw a period of Ukrainization, when the language was first standardized and dictionaries were written. During this time, according to Myroslav Shkandrij’s book “Russia and Ukraine: Literature and the Discourse of Empire from Napoleonic to Postcolonial Times,” some Russians viewed Ukrainian with a patronizing admiration, as a rural, archaic proto-Russian, a folk language at a time when the folk were meant to rule. One writer even suggested that elements of it be grafted onto Russian to make Russian more “pristine.” But the perils of their condescending attitude became quickly manifest in the late 1920s and 1930s, when Stalin began to enforce Russification on the language again, rewriting dictionaries to impose Russian loan words just as he purged the Ukrainian intelligentsia. 

The Ukrainian spoken today, nearly 25 years after it was first declared the country’s official language at independence, still bears scars from centuries of linguistic and demographic oppression. Although some intellectuals would like to bring back the old Ukrainian words banned by Stalin’s linguists, it’s difficult to undo the common parlance of eight decades. Most of the country is bilingual; many who check a “Ukrainian” or “Russian” census box are still fluent, often from birth, in the other language. But the years of Soviet rule created a linguistic hierarchy, in which Russian became the language of economic and social mobility, while Ukrainian was still considered a rural language. Pressure to speak Russian produced hybrid forms, known as surzhyk, close to Ukrainian grammatically but with Russian vocabulary and endings, now spoken by many Ukrainians as a private language. “Some writers have said [speaking surzhyk] is like getting home and putting on a comfortable bathrobe and slippers,” said Michael Flier, a Ukrainian philologist at Harvard.

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