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insight by wfx

Welcome to Wordwide FX's new enterprise!

Insight by WFX is a synthesis of our passion for languages and the financial markets. Here you will find technical and fundamental analyses from our clients, media partners and contributors in different languages, as well as discussions on languages and translation. And of course we will keep you updated on what is happening inside Wordwide FX Financial Translations. Hope you enjoy it! Greetings from the Wordwide FX team!


Billion-Dollar People: George Lucas


By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

What does it take for a middle-class, self made moviemaker to become a billionaire and rank #107 in the Forbes list 400? Talent - of course; lots of luck to be in the right place at the right time - probably; insight or vision to tell what people want to read, or see, or listen to - yeah, that too. But among all, I think, is this rare ability to be totally in tune with your generation, even with the children of your generation, to believe, to sense, or to be certain of that what you want to see -or read, or listen to- is basically the same as you yourself want. 

In 1977, George Lucas wanted to see stuff like Star Wars. Science fiction was "B" - b-movies, b-literature, b-everything. It was considered low-quality and underground at least until 1968 when Stanley Kubrick showed that, like replicants, science-fiction could be either a benefit or a hazard, that it could be frivolous but that it could also had a place in art and culture. But in spite of the undeliable excellence of 2001: A Space Odyssey, when George Lucas, then in his early 30s, started looking for a studio to fund what would later be the most commercially sucessful saga in movie history, science fiction films were still quite on the "B" side of the Hollywood executive's table. The same executives who were scared to fund Star Wars. Lucas got 8 million dollars from Fox, that were later increased to 11 million. The first movie, Star Wars IV, A New Hope, grossed 700 million dollars in the theaters worldwide.

The Fox ejecutives felt Lucas' salary was too high for a project that no one really believed in. He was offered to lower it in $500,000 in  return for the ownership of whatever merchandising came from the project. Lucas accepted. Was it talent, was it luck, was it vision, was it being in tune with everyone on earth - except evidently those Hollywood executives? 

In 1996, Lucas was already worth $2 billion. In 2012 his sold his Lucasfilm to Disney for $4,1 billion in stock and cash and he retired from filmmaking. He is now focused on philantropy and on his Lucas Museum of Narrative Art, that will open in Los Angeles this year.


The World’s Most Efficient Languages


By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Via The

By John McWhorter

How much do you really need to say to put a sentence together?

Just as fish presumably don’t know they’re wet, many English speakers don’t know that the way their language works is just one of endless ways it could have come out. It’s easy to think that what one’s native language puts words to, and how, reflects the fundamentals of reality.

But languages are strikingly different in the level of detail they require a speaker to provide in order to put a sentence together. In English, for example, here’s a simple sentence that comes to my mind for rather specific reasons related to having small children: “The father said ‘Come here!’” This statement specifies that there is a father, that he conducted the action of speaking in the past, and that he indicated the child should approach him at the location “here.” What else would a language need to do?

Well, for a German speaker, more. In “Der Vater sagte ‘Komm her!’”, although it just seems like a variation on the English sentence, more is happening. “Der,” the word for “the,” is a choice among other possibilities: It’s the one used for masculine nouns only. If the sentence were about a mother, it would have to use the feminine die, or if about a girl, the neuter das (for reasons unnecessary to broach here!). The word for “said,” sagte, is marked with a suffix for the third-person singular; if it were “you said,” then it would be sagtest—in English, those forms don’t vary in the past tense. Then, her for “here” means “to here”: In German one must become what feels to an English speaker rather Shakespearean and say “hither” when that’s what is meant. “Here” in the sense of just sitting “here” is a different word, hier.

This German sentence, then, requires you to pay more attention to the genders of people and things, to whether it’s me, you, her, him, us, y’all, or them driving the action. It also requires specifying not just where someone is but whether that person is moving closer or farther away. German is, overall, busier than English, and yet Germans feel their way of putting things is as normal as English speakers feel their way is.

Other languages occupy still other places on the linguistic axis of “busyness,” from prolix to laconic, and it’s surprising what a language can do without. In Mandarin Chinese, a way of saying “The father said ‘Come here!’” is “Fùqīn shuō ‘Guò lái zhè lǐ!’” Just as in English, there is no marker for the father’s gender, nor does the form of the word shuō for “said” indicate whether the speaker is me, you, or him. The word for “here,” zhè lǐ, can mean either “right here” or “to here,” just like in English. But Mandarin is even more telegraphic. There is no definite article like “the.” The word for “said” lacks not only a suffix for person, but is also not marked for tense; it just means “say.” It is assumed that context will indicate that this event happened in the past. Much of learning Mandarin involves getting a sense of how much one can not say in an acceptable sentence.

Moreover, anyone who has sampled Chinese, or Persian, or Finnish, knows that a language can get along just fine with the same word for “he” and “she.”* And whereas Mandarin can mark tense but often doesn’t, in the Maybrat language of New Guinea, there’s pretty much no way to mark it at all—context takes care of it and no one bats an eye.
If there were a prize for the busiest language, then a language like Kabardian, also known as Circassian and spoken in the Caucasus, would win. In the simple sentence “The men saw me,” the word for “saw” is sǝq’ayǝƛaaɣwǝaɣhaś (pronounced roughly “suck-a-LAGH-a-HESH”). This seems like a majestic monster of a word, and yet despite its air of “supercalifragilisticexpealidocious,” the word for “saw” is every bit as ordinary for Karbadian-speakers as English-speakers’ “saw” is for them. It’s just that Karbadian-speakers have to pack so much more into their version. In sǝq’ayǝƛaaɣwǝaɣhaś, other than the part meaning “see,” there is a bit that reiterates that it’s me who was seen, even though the sentence would include a separate word for “me” elsewhere. Then there are other bits that show that the seeing was most significant to “me” rather than to the men or anyone else; that the seeing was done by more than one person (despite the sentence spelling out elsewhere that it was plural “men” who did the seeing); that this event did not happen in the present; that on top of this, the event happened specifically in the past rather than the future; and finally a bit indicating that the speaker really means what he’s saying.

The prize for most economical language could go to certain colloquial dialects of Indonesian that are rarely written but represent the daily reality of Indonesian in millions of mouths. For example, in the Riau dialect spoken in Sumatra, ayam means chicken and makan means eat, but “Ayam makan” doesn’t mean only “The chicken is eating.” Depending on context, “Ayam makan” can mean the “chickens are eating,” “a chicken is eating,” “the chicken is eating,” “the chicken will be eating,” “the chicken eats,” “the chicken has eaten,” “someone is eating the chicken,” “someone is eating for the chicken,” “someone is eating with the chicken,” “the chicken that is eating,” “where the chicken is eating,” and “when the chicken is eating.” If chickens and eating are à propos, the assumption is that everybody in the conversation knows what’s what. Thus for a wide variety of situations the equivalent of “chicken eat” will do—and does.

So does the contrast between Riau Indonesian’s “chicken eat” and Kabardian’s “they saw me and it affected me, not now, and I really mean it” mean that each language gives its speakers a different way of looking at the world? It’s an intriguing idea, first formulated by anthropologist and linguist Edward Sapir and amateur linguist (and fire inspector!) Benjamin Whorf. If it were correct, an English-speaker would generally think about the past more than a Chinese-speaker would, while Germans would think more about movement than Americans or Brits.

Experiments have shown that this is often true to a faint, flickering degree a psychologist can detect in the artifice of experimental conditions. But does this mean a different way of experiencing life? Is a Kabardian shopkeeper in the Caucasus more exquisitely attuned to the nuances of experience than a Riau Indonesian-speaking fisherman in Sumatra? If that Kabardian shopkeeper’s jam-packed verbs mean that he vibrates in tune to the jots and tittles of life, then doesn’t one have to say that the Riau Indonesian speaker, whose grammar directs his attention to so few details, is something of a limp string on the guitar? We would run into similarly hopeless comparisons around the world. The Zulu speaker would be hypervigilant given the complexities of his language, the Samoan speaker inattendant given the less obsessively complicated nature of hers.

If thought and culture aren’t why some languages pile it on while others take it light, then what is the reason? Part of the answer is unsatisfying but powerful: chance. Time and repetition wear words out, and what wears away is often a nugget of meaning. This happens in some languages more than others. Think of the French song “Alouette, gentille alouette …” (“lark, nice lark”) in which one sings “ahh-loo-eh-tuh.” In running speech the word has long been pronounced just “ah-loo-ett” with no -uh at the end. That –uh in the song today is a leftover from the way the word actually was once pronounced normally, and it indicated the word’s feminine gender to the listener. Today, beyond marginal contexts like that song, only the final e in the spelling of alouette indicates its gender; hearing it in a sentence we’d have to rely on the definite article la alone to know that the word is feminine.
In a language where final sounds take the accent, such sounds tend to hold on longer because they are so loud and clear—you’re less likely to mumble it and people listening are more likely to hear it. In Hebrew, “Thank you very much,” is “Toda raba,” pronounced “toe-DAH rah-BAH.” The sounds at the end of the word mark gender in Hebrew, too, and they aren’t going anywhere anytime soon because they are enunciated with force.

When a language seems especially telegraphic, usually another factor has come into play: Enough adults learned it at a certain stage in its history that, given the difficulty of learning a new language after childhood, it became a kind of stripped-down “schoolroom” version of itself. Because all languages, are, to some extent, busier than they need to be, this streamlining leaves the language thoroughly complex and nuanced, just lighter on the bric-a-brac that so many languages pant under. Even today, Indonesian is a first language to only one in four of its speakers; the language has been used for many centuries as a lingua franca in a vast region, imposed on speakers of several hundred languages. This means that while other languages can be like overgrown lawns, Indonesian’s grammar has been regularly mowed, such that especially the colloquial forms are tidier. Lots of adult learning over long periods of time is also why, for example, the colloquial forms of Arabic like Egyptian and Moroccan are somewhat less elaborated than Modern Standard Arabic—they were imposed on new people as Islam spread after the seventh century.

In contrast, one cannot help suspecting that not too many adults have been tackling the likes of sǝq’ayǝƛaaɣwǝaɣhaś. Kabardian has been left to its own devices, and my, has it hoarded a lot of them. This is, as languages go, normal, even if Kabardian is rather extreme. By contrast, only a few languages have been taken up as vehicles of empire and imposed on millions of unsuspecting and underqualified adults. Long-dominant Mandarin, then, is less “busy” than Cantonese and Taiwanese, which have been imposed on fewer people. English came out the way it did because Vikings, who in the first millennium forged something of an empire of their own in northern and western Europe, imposed themselves on the Old English of the people they invaded and, as it were, mowed it. German, meanwhile, stayed “normal.”

Even if languages’ differences in busyness can’t be taken as windows on psychological alertness, the differences remain awesome. In a Native American language of California called Atsugewi (now extinct), if a tree was burned and we found the ashes in a creek afterward, we would have said that soot w’oqhputíc’ta into the creek. W’oqhputíc’ta is a conglomeration of bits that mean “it moved like dirt, in a falling fashion, into liquid, and for real.” In English, we would just say “flowed.”

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신종코로나 영향이 드러날 금주 경제지표


By Hussein Sayed, Chief Market Strategist with FXTM. Translated by Wordwide FX Financial Translations

작성: 2020/02/17 06:30 GMT FXTM 수석 시장 전략가 Hussein Sayed

금일 중국 CSI300 지수가 1% 이상 상승하면서 주식 투자자들의 중앙은행에 대한 믿음은 계속되고 있습니다. 2월 3일 저점 3,639을 기록한 후 10.9% 올라 춘제 연후 이후 낙폭을 거의 다 만회했습니다. 지난번 역RP 금리 인하를 단행했던 중국인민은행은 이번에 금융기관에 대한 중기대출 금리를 3.25%에서 3.15%로 인하했습니다. 또한 중국인민은행은 1,000억 위안 규모의 역RP 를 금융기관에 투입한다고 발표했습니다. 이러한 조치에 이어 금주 말에는 신종코로나 확산의 타격을 완화하기 위한 기준금리 인하가 단행될 가능성이 높습니다. 

신종코로나 충격이 우려되는 현재 상황에서 재정정책이 중요한 역할을 할 것으로 보이는 가운데  중국 정부당국은 법인세 인하를 약속했습니다. 하지만 이 조치가 생산 속도 증가와 경기순환 정상화로 이어질지 여부는 여전히 신종코로나가 얼마나 빨리 진정되는지에 달려 있습니다. 

현재 통화부양은 투자나 소비지출 증대에 별 도움이 되지 못하고 자산 가격 버블만 유발하고 있습니다. 이 단계에서는 자금 비용이 낮다고 해서 기업 설비투자가 늘지 않으며, 주택, 자동차 및 기타 내구재에 대한 소비지출도 마찬가지입니다. 신종코로나가 진정되어야 체감경기가 회복될 수 있으므로, 앞으로도 계속 주시해야 합니다 

금주는 신종코로나 확산에 독일 기관투자자가 얼마나 영향을 받았는지 확인할 수 있습니다.  화요일에 발표되는 독일 ZEW 지수는 1월에 4년래 최고까지 올랐다가 2월에는 하락했을 것으로 예상되지만, 유로 트레이더는 체감 지수 하락폭을 주시할 것입니다. 

금요일 발표되는 IHS Markit 2월 제조업 및 서비스 지표로 유로존 기업이 신종코로나에 어떻게 대처하고 있는지 알 수 있습니다. 
경제전망이 악화된 것으로 나타나면, 신종코로나 확산 이전에 이미 3년래 최저까지 하락한 유로의 하락 압력이 커질 수 있습니다. 유로존 산업생산은 12월에 2.1% 하락했고, 독일은 2019년 4분기에 경기침체 상태로 빠졌으며, 전체 유로존의 성장률은 2014년 이래 최저를 기록하고 있습니다. 

지난달 연준 회의록이 공개되는 수요일에는 미연준의 경제전망을 보다 잘 이해할 수 있게 될 것입니다.   신종코로나가 미국경제에 충격을 줄 수 있다는 파월 의장의 경고가 추가 금리인하를 정당화할 수 있을지 여부는 두고 봐야 하지만, 올해 중반 금리인하 가능성은 이미 43% 반영되어 있습니다.   

 자세한 내용은 다음 링크 참조: FXTM 


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Data AS gemilang, saham capai rekor baru


By Hussein Sayed, Chief Market Strategist with FXTM. Translated by Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Ditulis 28/11/2019 pukul 06.15 GMT
•    Indeks utama AS mencapai rekor tertinggi baru di hari Rabu 
•    Saham AS tergelincir setelah Presiden Trump tanda tangani UU pro-demokrasi Hong Kong
•    Survei pemilu jadi penggerak utama trader Pound 

Indeks utama AS dan imbal hasil Treasury mengalami reli di malam hari. S&P 500, Dow Jones Industrial Average, dan NASDAQ Composite mencapai rekor tertinggi baru setelah rilis data ekonomi domestik yang melampaui ekspektasi. 

PDB kuartal ketiga naik lebih tinggi dari proyeksi awal. Ekonomi AS berkembang dengan laju 2.1%, dibandingkan data pertama 1.9%. Revisi naik untuk akumulasi persediaan adalah kontributor besar pada data revisi ini, dan merefleksikan keyakinan bisnis, bahkan jika sifatnya sedikit kurang positif. Pemesanan barang modal inti AS di bulan Oktober mencapai kenaikan terbesar dalam sembilan bulan, yang juga menyiratkan bahwa perusahaan lebih yakin untuk berbelanja mesin dan barang tahan lama lainnya. Investasi bisnis adalah faktor yang pengaruhnya tidak besar dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi terkini AS, yang sangat mengandalkan konsumen. Jika data terus menunjukkan optimisme bisnis, PDB kuartal keempat juga dapat memberi kejutan positif. 

Trump tanda tangani UU pro-demokrasi Hong Kong

Reli pasar saham global selama beberapa pekan terakhir digerakkan terutama oleh laporan dan pernyataan resmi bahwa kesepakatan dagang "fase satu" AS-Tiongkok hampir tercapai.  Persetujuan legislasi Hong Kong yang mendukung demonstran kemungkinan mengancam kesepakatan dagang, karena Tiongkok menekankan kembali ancamannya untuk melakukan langkah balasan. 

Walau begitu, melihat reaksi awal dari sesi trading Asia, sepertinya investor tidak terlalu khawatir. Walaupun pasar saham menurun, penurunannya tidak signifikan dan tidak menunjukkan ancaman besar terhadap pasar bull saat ini. Walau begitu, reli mungkin terhambat hingga ada kejelasan mengenai kesepakatan dagang. Jika investor merasa kesepakatan dagang benar-benar terancam, aksi jual besar-besaran dapat terjadi di bulan Desember. Investor masih waspada dan memantau untuk saat ini. 

Mata uang terjebak di rentang sempit 

Yen sebagai mata uang safe haven menguat terhadap mata uang mayor lainnya setelah Presiden Trump menandatangani UU pro-demokrasi Hong Kong, namun reaksi ini bersifat terbatas, dan sebagian besar mata uang mayor masih berada di rentang trading yang sempit. Volatilitas pasar valas sepertinya akan tetap rendah dalam beberapa hari mendatang, hingga data minggu depan yang mungkin membuat pasar keluar dari rentang sempit saat ini. 

Situasinya mungkin berbeda untuk Pound, karena pemilu 12 Desember semakin dekat dan trader hanya berfokus pada satu hal, yaitu survei. Malam kemarin, hasil survei MRP YouGov yang sangat ditunggu-tunggu sudah diumumkan. Ini satu-satunya model yang memprediksi dengan akurat bahwa Theresa May akan kehilangan posisi mayoritas absolut di 2017, dan memprediksi Konservatif akan memenangkan kursi mayoritas signifikan. Ini membuat GBPUSD menguat, dan tekanan jual hanya akan terjadi apabila selisih antara Konservatif dan oposisinya, Partai Buruh, sangat menyempit. Semakin jelas bahwa hasil selain mayoritas Konservatif secara signifikan akan berdampak negatif pada Pound, jadi mari kita pantau terus hasil survei.    


Barcelona's Casa de Canvi: The First Regulator in History


By Wordwide FX Financial Translations

The first "regulator" in history was created in Barcelona in 1401. That year, a bank of exchange and of common and safe deposit was established under the authority of the municipal magistracy, that ended up working as a de facto regulator of commerce and bankers. The Casa de canvi ("house of exchange" in Catalan) was the first entity of this kind in Europe, even before the Bank of St. George at Genoa (1407). In this kind of common bank communities and individuals kept commodities and cash in any currency and credit was given according to the value of each project.

Late 14th and early 15th century was a time of crisis all around Europe. The plague decimated a population that knew nothing of hygiene and sanitary conditions; Barcelona itself had 50.000 inhabitants in 1348 and c. 28.000 in 1400. The church, preying on superstition and ignorance,  blamed the Jewish population on grounds that they refused to adhere to the "true faith". Commerce, external and internal, was paralyzed. Thus the bank of exchange was born as a means to boost, regulate, and protect maritime commerce. 

The goals of the Taula de canvi were to fund trade initiatives that did not have or could not find funding because of the hardships of the time, and to regulate trade and control bankers that committed fraud or other offences. If that happened, the responsibles for the Casa de canvi smashed that banker's money-changing table with a hammer and the offender was taken to justice. It was at that time that the word "bankruptcy" (that literally means, "break a bank" - the word "bank" meant originally "bench", "table") became popular.

Below, Barcelona in the14th century. From George Braun and Frans Hogenberg, Civitates Orbis Terrarum (1572). Source, Viquipèdia.

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Ketegangan dagang global beri bayang-bayang panjang pada sentimen pasar


By Han Tan @HancTan, Market Analyst with FXTM. Translated by Wordwide FX Financial Translations

Saat belahan bumi utara memasuki musim panas, sentimen pasar di seluruh dunia mengarah ke selatan karena ketegangan dagang global yang semakin memanas. 

Investor secara umum telah mendapat pengetahuan bahwa masalah dagang ini adalah prahara global yang akan melibatkan banyak negara di seluruh dunia. Ini sama sekali bukan kabar gembira bagi sentimen pasar maupun momentum ekonomi, dan kita harus bersiap menghadapi berbagai potensi revisi terhadap proyeksi pertumbuhan ekonomi dunia karena keadaan eksternal yang serba tak menentu untuk perdagangan global.  

Ketidakpastian eksternal perkuat permintaan safe haven 

Keadaan yang membawa banyak ketidakpastian eksternal mengenai perdagangan global akan memastikan bahwa selera terhadap safe haven akan tetap tinggi. Investor diperkirakan akan sangat berhati-hati dalam menambahkan risiko ke portofolio mereka karena keadaan pasar yang rapuh. 

Emas berhasil melampaui $1309 setelah menguat sekitar 2,7 persen sejak 30 Mei. Yen Jepang berada di level terkuat terhadap Dolar AS sejak Januari, bertengger di wilayah 108 bawah pada saat laporan ini dituliskan. Imbal hasil obligasi Treasury 10-Tahun AS merosot di bahwa 2,13 persen ke level terendah sejak September 2017.

Ekuitas global baru saja mencatatkan penurunan bulanan pertama di 2019, menambah risiko yang tampak menjadi opsi yang tak memungkinkan bagi investor saat ini. 

Kecuali Presiden Trump berbalik drastis dan mulai peduli terhadap ekonomi global alih-alih mengutamakan janji kampanyenya, pasar harus menghadapi iklim investasi yang didominasi oleh ketegangan dagang dan kekhawatiran yang semakin meningkat.

Euro, Pound sedikit lega karena Dolar melemah... untuk saat ini

Indeks Dolar AS melemah menuju 97.75 pada saat laporan ini dituliskan, sehingga berbagai mata uang G10 bisa sedikit bernapas lega. Dolar dapat semakin melemah apabila PMI Manufaktur AS untuk bulan Mei yang akan dirilis Senin ini tidak berhasil mencapai ekspektasi pasar, karena isyarat ekonomi AS yang lebih lemah akan memperkuat kekhawatiran umum mengenai perlambatan ekonomi global di tahun 2019.

Walaupun baru saja menguat terhadap Dolar, Euro akan menghadapi tekanan negatif baru jika rilis data ekonomi pekan ini mengecewakan. Ini akan membuat Bank Sentral Eropa mempertahankan pandangan pesimis pada rapat kebijakan 6 Juni. Prospek Euro akan semakin suram apabila ketegangan antara AS-Tiongkok semakin menjadi dan memengaruhi permintaan ekonomi di Eropa. sedangkan perselisihan fiskal Italia dengan administrasi Uni Eropa mengancam mengikis sentimen investor di Zona Euro.

Peluang Euroskeptik kuasai 10 Downing Street dapat memperlemah Pound 

Investor Pound akan memantau perburuan Perdana Menteri Inggris baru, karena Theresa May bersiap untuk lengser dari posisinya sebagai PM Inggris pekan ini. 
Walaupun perubahan kepemimpinan diperkirakan tidak akan selesai sebelum akhir Juli, Pound tetap dapat bereaksi terhadap pergulatan politik antara 13 kandidat Perdana Menteri, di saat kekhawatiran mengenai Brexit tanpa kesepakatan memberi bayang-bayang gelap dalam transisi kepemimpinan ini.

Pound dapat semakin terperosok setelah turun lebih dari 3% terhadap Dolar bulan lalu ke level terendah sejak Januari apabila muncul kekhawatiran bahwa kandidat Euroskeptik naik tahta sebagai Perdana Menteri Inggris berikutnya.  

Untuk informasi selengkapnya, kunjungi: FXTM